In support of the 2,500-years old meditation techniques originally taught by the Buddha.

Lost Links: Buddhism in Europe?


Was the Phaistos Disk made by Pythagoras?


Was the Phaistos Disk of Crete made by Pythagoras in the 6th century BC? Pythagoras (c. 580–500 BC) was a contemporary of the Buddha Gotama (c. 624 – 544 BC) in India, he was about 36 years old when the Buddha entered Parinibbāna. If his teachings of "metempsychosis" (knowledge of past lives), was based on Dependent Origination as taught by the Buddha, the symbols on the Phaistos disk and the Linear A and Linear B scripts were "ideograms" to teach meditation step by step, and not the lost phonetic alphabets of ancient Greek dialects as currently thought.


For a full translation of the Phaistos disk and text that explore the lost links of Buddhism in Europe:



Youtube link:


Phaistos Disk made by Pythagoras?


Note: contents is the personal view of the author.

 Phaistos Disk translation


Timeline Buddhism in Europe


Phaistos translation





Note: contents is the personal view of the author.



Mystery of the Plougastel-Daoulas stone in France



When a competition was launched in May 2019 to translate the mysterious Latin text mixed with complex runes on a stone on the beach in Plougastel-Daoulas in Finistère, France, it was a nice challenge because the meaning was obvious. Many objects in Europe have similar inscriptions and based on the Old Norse rune poems, combined with Linear A and B clay tablets that contain pictures of how to meditate, the 250 plus symbols on the stone was translated. The result was a beautiful text, possibly made as part of celebrations 1,000 years after the Buddha. This coincides with the making of many other more famous objects such as the Bamiyan Buddhas of Bactria (Afghanistan) and the two Golden Horns of Gallehus in Denmark and also with the writing of the Visuddhi Magga (Path of Purification), the Sri Lankan Commentary written by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa in c. 430 AD. The Commentary is still used as a manual to teach the system of meditation that was originally taught by the Buddha in his lifetime, at the Pa Auk meditation monastery in Myanmar over a thousand people are meditating daily and several new meditation centres have been established in more than ten countries and is growing fast. 

The translation was not chosen as a winner, but was the motivation to order complex information, already understood, into one coherent text that can communicate the valuable environment of mysterious objects left by those early meditators who followed in the footsteps of the Buddha.

The horse was the an-iconic symbol most used by Europeans, it appeared as the "M" symbol on the rock, which is similar to the a "ᛖ" rune used in Scandinavia, the horse appeared on an endless number of Celtic coins in the region, accompanied by elaborate symbols based on knowledge of advanced Buddhist meditation. The details are found in the pdf in the link below.


All contents is the personal view of the author.



Mystery of the 

Eggja rune stone in Norway



After the complex runes on the stone on the beach in Plougastel-Daoulas in Finistère were complete, it was clear that few would believe that the Latin letters could have the same meaning as Scandinavian rune symbols. The Eggja stone in Norway appeared to be a similar stone to that of France, with a comparable number of runes. On a hill overlooking a fjord it also tells about "following in the footsteps of the Buddha to cross the ocean of samsara".

In this document the link with learning centres in Greece via the ocean routes that went past Plougastel-Daoulas is explored, as well as the northern routes that were used later when southern Europe was too dangerous.

Especially the intellectual link between Europe and Siberia is highlighted, the envoys of Ashoka reached Europe, but also Siberia. The contact between Europe and Siberia continued until the 12th century AD, as can be seen on the symbols used on objects from Britain, Scotland and Scandinavia - including Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Gotland - that are found in Siberia/Mongolia. A Viking sword with runes inscribed in Gotland on a blade (made in Germany) found in Siberia recently confirms that the visual link found on standing stones share the intellectual knowledge displayed in the symbols that are related to the Buddhist system of meditation. The symbols originally found on Linear A and B clay tablets dating back to 550 BC during the lifetime of the Buddha and Pythagoras can be recognised as complex rune symbols used by Vikings until 1200 AD.


Contents is the personal view of the author.

Mystery of the 

Maeshowe rune inscriptions in Orkney



Unexpectedly the 30 rune inscriptions of the Maeshowe cairn in Orkney appeared, the decision to do two or three examples revealed the highest quality translations and exceptionally skilful use of the runes - proof that the rune alphabets were never intended to be phonetic. The rune inscriptions revealed the highest level of application - but the environment of Orkney also revealed the broad support of the international community.

A long debate about the role of the Romans in Scotland can be clarified by the exceptional objects such as massive silver chains and standing stones with symbols that do not only relate to Scandinavia and Siberia, but can be linked via Trusty's Hill and Plougastel-Daoulas to Spain, from where the trail leads to Rome and the Pantheon built by Hadrian. Hadrian was known to be a keen "philosopher" who studied and later supported Athens and several other regions where "philosophers", that may have been the word used to describe meditators in the early years, were studying and practising. Symbols in Petra, the "city of cave-dwellers" described by Plutarch, who also described "holy men on the islands of Britain (Maeshowe), connects India with Rome, and in turn with Orkney. A coherent and systematic intellectual environment was developed and supported by Hadrian and his successors.

If the interpretations of the texts of Plutarch, Plotinus and the later Christian authors Gildas and Jordanes are correct, there is not only written proof that the Buddhist system of meditation was thriving in Europe for many centuries, but also enough information to expose the hidden intellectual world of Buddhist learning centres found in Europe, with a history that started in the lifetime of the Buddha and lasted until the 12th century.


Contents is the personal view of the author.